. Marx wrote that, "Working men's Paris, with its Commune, will be forever celebrated as the glorious harbinger of a new society. Jourde first obtained a loan from the Rothschild Bank, then paid the bills from the city account, which was soon exhausted. General Vinoy ordered the army to pull back to the Seine, and Thiers began to organise a withdrawal to Versailles, where he could gather enough troops to take back Paris. In October 1871 a commission of the National Assembly reviewed the sentences; 310 of those convicted were pardoned, 286 had their sentences reduced, and 1,295 commuted. In the first round of the 1869 parliamentary elections held under the French Empire, 4,438,000 had voted for the Bonapartist candidates supporting Napoleon III, while 3,350,000 had voted for the republican opposition. Shots were fired from the Hôtel de Ville, one narrowly missing Trochu, and the demonstrators crowded into the building, demanding the creation of a new government, and making lists of its proposed members. I am suffocated. [126] ", Theodore Zeldin in France 1848-1945, vol.I goes so far as to say that Thiers deliberately ordered Paris to be evacuated in order to incite part of the population to rise up and eventually have a pretext for crushing Paris as a rebellious force.[127]. Article 5 stated, "Every execution of a prisoner of war or of a partisan of the government of the Commune of Paris will be immediately followed by the execution of a triple number of hostages held by virtue of article four." Word of the shooting spread quickly, and members of the National Guard from all over the neighbourhood, including Clemenceau, hurried to the site to confront the soldiers. The working class and immigrants suffered the most from the lack of industrial activity due to the war and the siege; they formed the bedrock of the Commune's popular support. At 6:00 in the evening, the army used cannon to demolish the gates and the First Regiment of naval infantry stormed into the cemetery. The policy of holding hostages for possible reprisals was denounced by some defenders of the Commune, including Victor Hugo, in a poem entitled "No Reprisals" published in Brussels on 21 April. https://www.thoughtco.com/paris-commune-4147849 (accessed February 5, 2021). On May 21, 1871, the army stormed the city and slaughtered tens of thousands of Parisians, including women and children, in the name of retaking the city for the Third Republic. [89], On 28 May, the regular army captured the last remaining positions of the Commune, which offered little resistance. Particularly notable is. However, the term more commonly refers to the socialist government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May 1871. Commune de Paris 1871, work as a creative label established in 2009, it designs and produces men's clothes, accessories, decorative objects and other curios using. Perhaps he meant both dead and wounded." It existed before the split between anarchists and Marxists had taken place, and it is hailed by both groups as the first assumption of power by the working class during the Industrial Revolution. On 2 September 1870, France was defeated at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War, and Emperor Napoleon III was captured. Four battalions crossed the Seine and captured the prefecture of police, while other units occupied the former headquarters of the National Guard at the Place Vendôme, as well as the Ministry of Justice. At least three plays have been set in the Commune: Berlin performance group Showcase Beat le Mot created, There have been numerous films set in the Commune. Thus both economically and politically the Paris Commune was heavily influenced by anarchist ideas. At about seven-thirty Delescluze put on his red sash of office, walked unarmed to the barricade on the Place du Château-d'Eau, climbed to the top and showed himself to the soldiers, and was promptly shot dead. [3] The issue of casualties during the Bloody Week arose at a National Assembly hearing on 28 August 1871, when Marshal MacMahon testified. [37], In Paris, hostility was growing between the elected republican mayors, including Clemenceau, who believed that they were legitimate leaders of Paris, and the Central Committee of the National Guard. Their remains were later reburied in city cemeteries. [7], Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Karl Marx, who described it as the first example of the "dictatorship of the proletariat".[8]. His last reported words were: "Do they still say I was a traitor?"[71]. Vacherot persisted, "It was General Appert who gave me that information. At the end of the war 400 obsolete muzzle-loading bronze cannons, partly paid for by the Paris public via a subscription, remained in the city. When the voting was finished, 233,000 Parisians had voted, out of 485,000 registered voters, or forty-eight percent. [48] Joséphine Marchias, a washer woman, picked up a gun during the battles of May 22-23rd and said, "You cowardly crew! MacMahon replied, "Ah, well, that's different. What will become of these revolutionaries? The council determined that the Commune would have no singular leader or any with more power than others. The first vote of the new Central Committee was to refuse to recognise the authority of General D'Aurelle de Paladines, the official commander of the National Guard appointed by Thiers, or of General Vinoy, the Military Governor of Paris. The most popular of the pro-Commune newspapers was Le Cri du Peuple, published by Jules Valles, which was published from 22 February until 23 May. Many of these workers served as soldiers of the National Guard, a volunteer army that worked to protect the city and its inhabitants during the siege. As the soldiers were surrounded, they began to break ranks and join the crowd. [15] He had about a thousand followers, many of them armed and organized into cells of ten persons each. Five national guardsmen were captured by the regulars; two were Army deserters and two were caught with their weapons in their hands. But in the working-class neighborhoods, turnout was high: 76 percent in the 20th arrondissement, 65 percent in the 19th, and 55 to 60 percent in the 10th, 11th, and 12th.[40]. The trial of Gustave Cluseret, the former commander, was still going on at the Commune when they received the message from General Dombrowski that the army was inside the city. After the National Guard took over key government and army sites in Paris in March 1871, the Commune began to take shape as members of a Central Committee organized a democratic election of councilors that would rule the city on behalf of the people. The Commune also governed with secular principles and instituted the separation of church and state. What You Need to Know About the Paris Commune of 1871. [94], Participants and historians have long debated the number of Communards killed during Bloody Week. It occurred in the wake of France’s defeat in the Franco-German War and the collapse of Napoleon III’s Second Empire (1852–70). Empress Eugénie, the Emperor's wife and acting Regent at the time, fled the city, and the Government of the Second Empire swiftly collapsed. She was arrested as an incendiary, but there is no documentation that she was a pétroleuse (female incendiary). "[68] On 19 May, while the Commune executive committee was meeting to judge the former military commander Cluseret for the loss of the Issy fortress, it received word that the forces of Marshal MacMahon were within the fortifications of Paris. Marx and Engels, Bakunin, and later Lenin, tried to draw major theoretical lessons (in particular as regards the "dictatorship of the proletariat" and the "withering away of the state") from the limited experience of the Commune. While carrying back the laundry she was given by the guardsmen, she carried away the body of her lover, Jean Guy, who was a butcher's apprentice. With Eliane Annie Adalto, Pierre Barbieux, Bernard Bombeau, Maylis Bouffartigue. [24], Of the 200 republicans in the new parliament, 80 were former Orléanists (Philippe's supporters) and moderately conservative. [118] However, it has been argued in recent research that these famous female arsonists of the Commune, or pétroleuses, may have been exaggerated or a myth. The National Assembly decreed a law on 24 July 1873, for the construction of the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur on Montmartre, near the location of the cannon park and where General Clément-Thomas and General Lecomte were killed, specifying that it was to be erected to "expiate the crimes of the Commune". The members of the National Guard from working-class neighbourhoods became the main armed force of the Commune.[16]. Esperanto: La pariza Komunumo estis revolucia registaro en Parizo de la 26-a de marto ĝis la 20-a de majo 1871… During its reign, others were established in Lyon, Saint-Etienne, and Marseille. The heights were captured at the end of the afternoon by the first regiment of the French Foreign Legion. Marx, in The Civil War in France (1871), written during the Commune, praised the Commune's achievements, and described it as the prototype for a revolutionary government of the future, "the form at last discovered" for the emancipation of the proletariat. They were expected to converge at the end of 24 hours at the gates of the Palace of Versailles. That is clearly to be read in the eyes of the passers-by. During the Siege of Paris she untiringly preached resistance to the Prussians. They were met by regular army units loyal to the Government of National Defence, and the demonstrators eventually dispersed peacefully. In fact the army had re-occupied the abandoned forts on 28 March. [121] However, photographs of the ruins of the Tuileries Palace, the Hotel de Ville, and other prominent government buildings that burned show that the exteriors were untouched by cannon fire, while the interiors were completely gutted by fire; and prominent Communards such as Jules Bergeret, who escaped to live in New York, proudly claimed credit for the most famous acts of arson. Lenin, like Marx, considered the Commune a living example of the "dictatorship of the proletariat". Led by Raoul Rigault, it began to make several arrests, usually on suspicion of treason, intelligence with the enemy, or insults to the Commune. A former clerk of a notary, accountant in a bank and employee of the city's bridges and roads department, Jourde maintained the Commune's accounts with prudence. I am quite upset, or rather out of heart. The newly organized French armies won a single victory at Coulmiers on 10 November, but an attempt by General Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot on 29 November at Villiers to break out of Paris was defeated with a loss of 4,000 soldiers, compared with 1,700 German casualties. Those convicted by the jury would become "hostages of the people of Paris." On 22 March 1871, demonstrators holding banners declaring them to be "Friends of Peace" were blocked from entering the Place Vendôme by guardsmen who, after being fired on, opened fire on the crowd. . He used the famous term later taken up by Lenin and the Bolsheviks: the Commune was, he said, the first "dictatorship of the proletariat", a state run by workers and in the interests of workers. He worked rapidly to assemble a new and reliable regular army. But Marx and Engels were not entirely uncritical of the Commune. As he put it , "the exile of so many extremists enabled the new Republic to [...] develop in a peaceful and orderly fashion. They passed by the line of forts outside the city, believing them to be occupied by national guardsmen. Gustave Courbet was the most prominent artist to take part in the Commune, and was an enthusiastic participant and supporter, though he criticised its executions of suspected enemies. There were also 115,000 servants and 45,000 concierges. As soon as he heard the news of the uprising, he made his way to the railway station, where national guardsmen were already stopping and checking the identity of departing passengers. Shop To command the new army, Thiers chose Patrice MacMahon, who had won fame fighting the Austrians in Italy under Napoleon III, and who had been seriously wounded at the Battle of Sedan. The Tuileries Palace, which had been the residence of most of the monarchs of France from Henry IV to Napoleon III, was defended by a garrison of some three hundred National Guard with thirty cannon placed in the garden. The horses that were needed to move the cannon away did not arrive, and the army units were immobilized. ", The elections of 26 March elected a Commune council of 92 members, one for every 20,000 residents. The Commune counts on you, count on the Commune![72]. It was voted on 12 April by the executive committee of the Commune, which declared that the column was "a monument of barbarism" and a "symbol of brute force and false pride." Following the election of the council, the "Communards," as they were called, implemented a series of policies and practices that set out what a socialist, democratic government and society should look like. Gustave Cluseret, the commander of the National Guard until his dismissal on 1 May, had tried to impose more discipline in the army, disbanding many unreliable units and making soldiers live in barracks instead of at home. [60], Commune leaders responded to the execution of prisoners by the Army by passing a new order on 5 April—the Decree on Hostages. They are not fighting with cannon shots, they are slaughtering each other with decrees."[62]. Genton sent a deputy back to the Prosecutor, who wrote "and especially the archbishop" on the bottom of his note. The army took 1,500 prisoners at the National Guard position on Rue Haxo, and 2,000 more at Derroja, near Père-Lachaise. Parisians suffered shortages of food, firewood, coal and medicine. [18], Blanqui, the leader of the most radical faction, established his own headquarters at the nearby Prefecture of the Seine, issuing orders and decrees to his followers, intent upon establishing his own government. The National Guard troops were quickly repulsed by the Army, with a loss of about twelve soldiers. Defiantly, she vowed to never renounce the Commune, and dared the judges to sentence her to death. found: Encyc. Numerous organisations were set up during the siege in the localities (quartiers) to meet social needs, such as canteens and first-aid stations. At the news that the government had failed to have the cannons seized he wrote in his diary, "He touched off the fuse to the powder keg. That which we defend, that which we love, that which we admire, is Paris. Additionally, tens of thousands were taken as prisoners by the army, many of whom were executed. Since Paris had been officially under a state of siege during the Commune, the prisoners were tried by military tribunals. General Vinoy, the commander of the Paris Military District, had ordered any prisoners who were deserters from the Army to be shot. On the front line, soldiers learned from a sympathiser inside the walls that the National Guard had withdrawn from one section of the city wall at Point-du-Jour, and the fortifications were undefended. Not all prisoners were shot immediately; the French Army officially recorded the capture of 43,522 prisoners during and immediately after Bloody Week. Es wird noch produziert. [48][49] There were reports in various newspapers of pétroleuses but evidence remains weak. When the armistice was signed and the Third Republic began their rule, the workers of Paris and feared that the new government would set the country for a return to monarchy, as there were many royalists serving within it. Paris was the traditional home of French radical movements. Two days later, municipal councils in each of the twenty arrondissements of Paris voted to elect mayors; five councils elected radical opposition candidates, including Delescluze and a young Montmartrean doctor, Georges Clemenceau.[19]. Like many of Watkins' later films, it is quite lengthy - a long cut runs 5 hours and 45 minutes, though the more common version is 3 and a half hours long. [26], On 17 March 1871, there was a meeting of Thiers and his cabinet, who were joined by Paris mayor Jules Ferry, National Guard commander General D'Aurelle de Paladines and General Joseph Vinoy, commander of the regular army units in Paris. All I can say is that the insurgents lost a lot more people than we did." In Paris, however, the republican candidates dominated, winning 234,000 votes against 77,000 for the Bonapartists. The National Guard still held parts of the 3rd arrondissment, from the Carreau du Temple to the Arts-et-Metiers, and the National Guard still had artillery at their strong points at the Buttes-Chaumont and Père-Lachaise, from which they continued to bombard the regular army forces along the Canal Saint-Martin. In Paris, members of the Military Commission and the Executive Committee of the Commune, as well as the Central Committee of the National Guard, met on 1 April. There were heavy naval cannons mounted on the ramparts of Paris, but few national guardsmen were trained to use them. "[96] Several historians have accepted the 20,000 figure, among them Pierre Milza,[97] Alfred Cobban[98] and Benedict Anderson. "[55], From the beginning, the Commune had a hostile relationship with the Catholic Church. [42] The winners were announced on 27 March, and a large ceremony and parade by the National Guard was held the next day in front of the Hôtel de Ville, decorated with red flags. On 5 May, he was appointed commander of the Commune's whole army. [86], On the afternoon of 26 May, after six hours of heavy fighting, the regular army captured the Place de la Bastille. Die Aufständischen gaben damit den Auftakt zur Pariser Kommune. He was considered to be the candidate most likely to bring peace and to restore order. But our good Frenchmen hasten to pull down their house as soon as the chimney takes fire..." Near the end of the Commune, Flaubert wrote to her again, "As for the Commune, which is about to die out, it is the last manifestation of the Middle Ages." Other candidates who were elected, including about twenty moderate republicans and five radicals, refused to take their seats. The reserves were guarded by 500 national guardsmen who were themselves Bank of France employees. Delescluze offered Wroblewski the command of the Commune forces, which he declined, saying that he preferred to fight as a private soldier. If you let me live, I shall never cease to cry for vengeance. She escaped and soon afterwards surrendered to the army, to prevent the arrest of her mother. They also sent a delegation of mayors of the Paris arrondissements, led by Clemenceau, to negotiate with Thiers in Versailles to obtain a special independent status for Paris. Cole, Nicki Lisa, Ph.D. "What You Need to Know About the Paris Commune of 1871." Most electors in France were rural, Catholic and conservative, and this was reflected in the results; of the 645 deputies assembled in Bordeaux on February, about 400 favoured a constitutional monarchy under either Henri, Count of Chambord (grandson of Charles X) or Prince Philippe, Count of Paris (grandson of Louis Philippe). On 26 January, they signed a ceasefire and armistice, with special conditions for Paris. At the urging of the more radical newspapers, National Guard units searched the basements of churches, looking for evidence of alleged sadism and criminal practices. She offered to shoot Thiers, and suggested the destruction of Paris by way of vengeance for its surrender. Thiers insisted that the planned operation must go ahead as quickly as possible, to have the element of surprise. Angebote. A general amnesty was granted on 11 July 1880, allowing the remaining 543 condemned prisoners, and 262 sentenced in their absence, to return to France. [123]", For David Thomson, Thiers had no other option to restore the unity of a country fractured by an overwhelming defeat and innumerable factions. ...Those who burn and who massacre merit no other justice than the gunshot of a soldier. Commune of Paris, (1871), insurrection of Paris against the French government from March 18 to May 28, 1871. The Commune began by establishing nine commissions, similar to those of the National Assembly, to manage the affairs of Paris. [75], On 23 May the next objective of the army was the butte of Montmartre, where the uprising had begun. They have taken over all the city halls, all the public establishments, they’re pillaging the munitions and the food supplies. sizilianische … In September and October Adolphe Thiers, the leader of the National Assembly conservatives, had toured Europe, consulting with the foreign ministers of Britain, Russia, and Austria, and found that none of them were willing to support France against the Germans. Émile Zola wrote, "Thus we citizens of Paris are placed between two terrible laws; the law of suspects brought back by the Commune and the law on rapid executions which will certainly be approved by the Assembly.