[81], The French offensive at Stonne was of vital importance. Ce dernier est conduit à la sous-préfecture de Sedan et présenté, à sa grande surprise, à l'empereur, dont la présence à Sedan n'était pas connue des Allemands. [12] Added to this, the newly inserted 71st Infantry Division and French X Corps in the Rémilly area prevented the 10th Panzer Division making any quick progress. Alors Napoléon III se ressaisit. Its capture would give the Germans a base from which to take the Meuse bridges and cross the river. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9791032101605, . Pour le remplacer, il désigne Ducrot, qui ordonne aussitôt la retraite en direction d’Illy et de Mézières. He could obey tactical necessity and protect the bridgeheads against a French counter-attack from the south; he could strike west towards Paris with his Corps; or he could carry out the dash to the Channel. However, the French commanders, already deeply schooled and versed in the rather staunchly defensively-focused broad, generalized doctrine of methodological warfare, were located far to the rear, which meant they lacked a real-time picture of the battle. Le 23 août, la régente et le conseil des ministres ordonnent à Mac-Mahon d'aller secourir Bazaine. S'opposèrent à l'issue de cette dernière l'armée française (l'Armée de Châlons), forte de 120 000 hommes et de 560 canons commandée par l'empereur Napoléon III, et l'armée prussienne sous le commandement du futur Kaiser (Guillaume I de Prusse), forte de 200 000 hommes et de 780 canons. Both divisions were short of anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns, a critical short-coming. Only 93 fighter sorties, (60 by the French) were flown. En sept ou huit endroits, la ville se met à flamber. For the first few days the German air arm would be used mostly in support of Army Group B. [46][53] General Marcel Têtu, commander of the Allied Tactical Air Forces ordered: "Concentrate everything on Sedan. The Germans retook the town at 17:00 on 17 May, for the fourth time in nine hours. There was a gap of 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) between Bunker 305 at Glaire and Bunker 211 next to the Pont Neuf bridge. All … [3] The most significant unit was VIII. En septembre 1873, les Allemands évacuent complètement le territoire après versement du solde de la dette. Fortunately for Guderian, the 1st Panzer Division succeeded in crossing the Meuse in the centre (see above). Aux averses, succède un soleil de plomb, la chaleur accablante n'arrange pas les conditions des prisonniers. [16], The French artillery concealed in wooded areas proved more potent than the tanks. All Hello, Sign in. In collaboration, II. Le 1er septembre 1870 se joue l’avenir du Second Empire. [49], The Luftwaffe cowed the defenders, breaking them psychologically. To supplement his air support, Guderian stripped most of his Panzer Divisions of their artillery, which he then positioned directly opposite Gaulier. It was thought that the 213th could reach an area in between Chéhéry and Bulson in one hour fifty minutes and the 7th Tank Battalion in two hours. Finalement commandant en chef en place de Mac-Mahon, De Wimpffen réfute la stratégie de la retraite et ordonne de réoccuper Bazeilles. In allegato il link per potersi iscrivere alla JPF che si terrà online il 16 novembre 2020 e il programma. Cet acte de capitulation précise que la place forte ainsi qu'armes, munitions, matériels, chevaux et drapeaux seront remis aux vainqueurs[22],[24] et que l'armée prisonnière sera conduite sur la presqu'île d'Iges, à l'ouest de Sedan. The shift of operations further north would also disperse concentration (or Schwerpunkt) and disrupt the intense planning of the German tactical units, who had been in training for the Sedan attack and an advance north-west, for months. [47] Loerzer and Richthofen committed two Stuka units to the attack. On 14 May, the Allied air forces, the Royal Air Force (RAF) and Armée de l'Air (French Air Force) tried to destroy the bridges. […] La bataille de Sedan a eu lieu le 1 septembre 1870, durant la guerre franco-prussienne. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 14 janvier 2021 à 08:23. Les Français sont définitivement battus après la fin du Siège de Paris, le 28 janvier 1871. It was not until 22:20, in darkness, that regular ferrying missions enabled the reinforcement of the German bridgehead. The town would fall to each side over the next 48 hours, as offensive followed counter-attack. C'est en ce lieu que les généraux en chef des deux camps signent une heure plus tard l'acte de reddition de l'armée française. [53], The capture of Sedan and the expansion of the bridgeheads alarmed the French who called for a total effort against the bridgeheads at Sedan, to isolate the three Panzer Divisions. However, by 10 May, most of the bunkers were incomplete, lacking gun port shutters for the artillery casemates. [57] With the threat of artillery fire on its right flank removed, the units on the 2nd Panzer's left flank crossed the river and infiltrated the French positions opposite Donchery at 20:00. Loerzer's Ju 87s flew some 180 missions against Sedan's bunkers whilst Richthofen's managed 90. [3] This powerful air concentration numbered some 1,470 aircraft; 600 Heinkel He 111 and Junkers Ju 88 medium bombers and Dornier Do 17 light bombers, 250 Ju 87s, 500 Messerschmitt Bf 109s and 120 Messerschmitt Bf 110s. Panzerkorps (19th Tank Corps), under the command of Heinz Guderian, was to strike into France at Sedan, located on the Meuse river. À Reims, au camp de Courcelles, Mac-Mahon complète ses effectifs, réorganise son armée et se prépare à défendre la capitale. Se doutant que l'empereur veut tenter d'adoucir les conditions de la capitulation, le ministre du roi de Prusse refuse que Napoléon III rencontre Guillaume à Vendresse. L'entretien entre les deux dirigeants est rapide, environ un quart d'heure, et ne change rien aux conditions de capitulation. Some of the French 102nd Infantry division's batteries also joined in from the north west, at Charleville. The regiment inched westward and was able to see the 2nd Panzer Division on the extreme west flank of the 1st Panzer, attacking the bunker position near Donchery. ", Guderian decided on the last option. On 12 May, Sedan was captured without resistance and the Germans defeated the French defences around Sedan on the west bank of the Meuse. La France a certes réalisé la révolution industrielle, mais les stratèges militaires n'ont pas su intégrer les évolutions du modernisme. Mai 1940 by Général Général Yves Lafontaine and Publisher Editions de Fallois. Le Mémorial commémoratif de ces charges des Chasseurs d'Afrique a été érigé à. Cette maison existe toujours au bord de la D 764 à la sortie de Donchery, côté gauche en direction de Sedan, une pancarte indique « maison de l'entrevue, c'est une maison privée qui ne se visite pas ». Despite the other two battalions being held up further south, by 20:00 the central Hill 247 had been taken. Resulting in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops, it effectively decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government . La défaite de Sedan a été un révélateur. It practically decided the war in favor of Prussia and its allies. Tous, sauf un, Wimpffen, toujours en train de rallier des hommes sur la route de Bazeilles. The 1st Panzer Division, reinforced by the Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland, a battalion of assault engineers, and divisional artillery of the 2nd and 10th Panzer Divisions, was to make the main attack by crossing the Meuse just north of Sedan and seizing the Heights of la Marfee overlooking the city. In large air battles, the Allies suffered high losses which depleted Allied bomber strength in the campaign. [6] To the north and south of Sedan, the French X Corps and French XXXXI Corps (at the artillery fortress at Charleville-Mézières) could also add their artillery and shell Guderian's Panzer units as they crossed the bridgeheads. VIII. For these reasons, Guderian had decided the outcome depended on the quality of air support, acting as flying artillery. The nine Kampfgruppen (bomber wings) of II. While that may have been possible on 13 May, the odds had shifted against the French. The Germans achieved the Meuse crossing after just 57 hours. L'État cède à la ville de nombreux bastions et bâtiments militaires et apporte son aide matérielle et financière. Guillaume est proclamé Empereur du deuxième Reich allemand. "Leute" signifie "gens, hommes", et par conséquent, dans ce contexte, "soldats" ou "hommes". [79] In the two pitched battles the 7th Tank Battalion fought that day they lost 10 from 13. [46] Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 struck first in the morning of 13 May. The French Second Army was guarding a front of 70 kilometres (43 mi), and was given only 16,000 mines. There was a rumour that German tanks were approaching the town of Bulson. » L’Empereur pourrait aussi se retirer sur Mézières tant que la route est libre ; il y serait en sûreté et pourrait revenir activer la défense de Paris ou traiter de la paix avec l’ennemi. [33] Guderian reported that his Corps had only 141 artillery pieces against the French 174. Batallie de Sedan Français, aux armes! Le 30 août, les troupes françaises (Ve corps) chargées de protéger le flanc droit de l'armée de Mac-Mahon sont défaites par une partie de la IVe armée allemande le 30 août 1870, à la bataille de Beaumont (au sud-est de Sedan). Cependant le stratège français a sous-estimé l'importance des forces allemandes, leur rapidité et leur tactique d'ensemble. The speed of the FCM 36 was not designed to go any faster for this reason, so its top speed was only 24 km/h (15 mph). Sur 110 hectares de superficie communale, les 14 000 à 15 000 habitants et les industries que comptait Sedan devaient se serrer sur 18 hectares. "The result was a defeat of so comprehensive a nature that the wisdom of publishing it was questioned lest morale be damaged. Pour éviter les Prussiens de la IIIe armée, Mac-Mahon décide alors de remonter au nord vers le département des Ardennes pour ensuite se diriger sur Metz. [20] The "barrier" of the Meuse and Ardennes appeared to be a sound strategic defence feature that a future enemy could not get through or go around. Les Bavarois, nettement plus nombreux et surtout appuyés par une artillerie moderne et très efficace, ont repris le village. Certes, les armées françaises ont enregistré quelques succès avant Sedan, mais ils ont été mal exploités. Ce fut une victoire décisive des forces prussiennes, l'Empereur ayant lui-même été fait prisonnier, mettant fin à la guerre en faveur de la Prusse et de ses alliés (la Bavière notamment), bien que le combat continuât sous la nouvelle République. [63] GB I/34 and II/34 could muster eight aircraft out of 22 Amiot 143s, I/38 seven out of 12, and II/38 six out of 11. GB I/12 and II/12 had only 13 LeO 451s between them. It was to occupy the Bulson position on the Chéhéry–Bulson–Haraucourt axis and strike at the Meuse bridgeheads. The 2nd Panzer Division in the north was to form the right flank of the assaulting force when it reached the Meuse near Donchery. Loerzer would later say that the official order from Hugo Sperrle had arrived too late to make changes. La bataille de Sedan a eu lieu le 1er septembre 1870, durant la guerre franco-prussienne. Sedan est située sur la rive droite de la Meuse dans une gigantesque cuvette entourée de collines avec deux défilés vers Mézières (ouest) et Carignan (est), ce qui réduit fortement les possibilités de s'en échapper. La battaglia di Verdun (in francese Bataille de Verdun, IPA: [ba'taj də vɛʁ'dœ̃]; in tedesco Schlacht um Verdun, IPA: ['ʃlaxt ˀʊm vɛɐ'dœŋ]), nome in codice operazione Gericht ("giudizio"), fu l'unica grande offensiva tedesca avvenuta tra la prima battaglia della Marna del 1914 e l'ultima offensiva del generale Erich Ludendorff nella primavera del 1918. Mai 2020, quatre-vingtième anniversaire du désastre de Sedan. [59], French Air Forces under the command of Commandant des Forces (Commander of Forces) Marcel Têtu Aeriennes de Cooperation du Front Nord-Est (Ardennes Cooperation Front North East, or FACNE)[61] rarely supported the British efforts despite substantial reinforcements. Owing to this Lafontaine also delayed issuing orders to the tactical attack units until 05:00 on 14 May, by which time the Germans had consolidated their bridgehead and the Panzer divisions' combined arms infantry teams were already advancing inland to Bulson. This would increase the density of fighting strength in the immediate area, but such a move was only partially complete by 10 May, as it was scheduled to be completed on 13–14 May, three days after the German attack. Mais très mal renseigné sur les forces prussiennes, Mac-Mahon l’écoute d’une oreille distraite : « Nous ne sommes pas ici pour nous éterniser. The false reports spread and the French 55th Infantry Division deserted their positions. Dans le village se déroulent alors des combats acharnés, maison par maison. Malgré tout, Wimpffen a réussi à avancer de quelques kilomètres lorsque, sur ses arrières, déferle une marée humaine. La bataille de Sedan. [35], The organisation of the French 55th Infantry Division was chaotic. Une émission de la chaîne de télévision franco-allemande Arte, le 22 novembre 2006, émit l'hypothèse que cette guerre fut la « mère » des deux guerres mondiales du XXe siècle. [12], The 10th Panzer Division's assaults failed all along the Meuse front. [56] The bulk of the 174 artillery pieces available to the French at Sedan were concentrated on the 2nd Panzer Division's front. Around 33 French tanks and 24 German Panzers were knocked out. Et il est peut-être le seul à pouvoir jouer une dernière carte : rencontrer en tête-à-tête le roi Guillaume de Prusse – qu’il a reçu trois ans auparavant aux Tuileries à l’occasion de l’Exposition universelle -, tenter de le fléchir, d’arrêter l’effusion de sang et d’épargner l’honneur de ses généraux. The terrain included heavily wooded areas, and the units left behind convinced General Charles Huntziger, commander of the French Second Army, that they would be able to hold Bulson, and the Germans would not be able to exploit their tactical victory at Sedan on 14 May. Les « marsouins » reprennent le village dès la tombée de la nuit et repoussent même les Bavarois jusqu'au pont, tant la contre-attaque est énergique. Tous lui disent que la lutte est devenue sans espoir. [3], In the sector of Longwy, Sedan and Namur, where the Ardennes and the River Meuse meet, the Ninth Army and Second Army were made up chiefly of poor quality divisions. [4], No. Such reports were in error, as the first Panzers only crossed at 07:20 on 14 May. »[21]. [23], The French Army authorised fresh attempts to increase the strength of the fortifications in the autumn of 1939, but severe winter weather prevented the pouring of concrete and the delivery of the necessary materials. Acquista ora! [9] Loerzer called 14 May "the day of the fighter". [55] The last bunker to surrender did so at 22:40 hours on 13 May. [18], Nevertheless, while Kleist accepted the folly of the Flize detour, he insisted the offensive concentration point should be made west of the Ardennes Canal. Poursuivi et harcelé par les IIIe et IVe armées, Mac-Mahon décide alors de se réfugier, au moins quelques jours, aux alentours de la ville de Sedan, citadelle située non loin de la frontière belge. In controversial circumstances, the German armed forces failed to eliminate the British trapped in the pocket. Les sentinelles allemandes postées autour de la boucle de la Meuse exhibent cyniquement leurs vivres et tirent sans pitié sur les prisonniers qui tentent de s'évader, mais beaucoup réussissent néanmoins à s'échapper et la plupart vont se réfugier en Belgique toute proche. Les travaux se termineront sept ans plus tard.